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- Alan Turing, in his paper Computer Machinery and Intelligence proposes what becomes known as
the Turing Test: "A machine may be deemed intelligent when it can pass for a human being in a blind test."
- The first computer company is formed: Remington Rand combined with the inventors of ENIAC to bring
out the UNIVAC.
- The first commercially produced computer introduced, the Ferranti Mark I.
- The first real-time computer, the Whirlwind, built for the US air-defence system.
- The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer) completed at the Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, USA, by von Neumann and others.
- IBM's first computer is launched.
- Magnetic core memory developed.
- FORTRAN, the first high-level computer language devised, by IBM.
- Robert Noyce and seven others quit Shockley Semiconductor and found Fairchild Semiconductor.
- Within months of each other, Jack Kilby (at Texas Instruments) and Bob Noyce (at Fairchild
Semiconductor) invent the integrated circuit chip.
- Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy set up the Artifical Intelligence Lab at MIT.
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