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Digital Time

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## pre 1950

**450 BC**

**1614**
- John Napier, Scottish mathematician, invents logarithms.

**1615**
- William Oughtred, English mathematician, invents the slide rule.

**1623**
- Wilhelm Schickard, German polymath, invents the first mechanical calculating machine, the Calculating Clock.

**1645**
- Blaise Pascal, French philosopher and mathematician, produces a calculator.

**1674**
- Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician, finishes his first calculator, the Stepped Reckoner.

**1801**
- Joseph-Marie Jacquard, French textile manufacturer, invents a way of programming a carpet-making loom
by using punched cards.

**1820**
- Charles Thomas de Colmar produces the first mass-produced calculator, the Arithmometer.

**1822**
- Charles Babbage, English mathematician, makes first prototype of his Difference Engine calculating machine.

**1830s**
- Charles Babbage designs his Analytical Engine, a calculating machine to be programmable by punched cards.

**1889**
- Nintendo Koppai, forerunner of today's Nintendo, founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to make and sell handmade
playing cards.

**1890**
- Herman Hollerith, American inventor, developed a punched card system for recording and processing data for
the US census. (In 1924 he merged his company with two others to become IBM).

**1936**
- Alan Turing, English mathematician, developed a mathematical characterization of the ideal computing
machine.

**1938**
- Conrad Zuse, German computer pioneer, constructed the first binary calculator, using Boolean algebra.

**22 October**
- Chester Carlson succeeds in making the first electrophotographic copy (or photocopy), in New York.

**1943**
- Colossus electronic code-breaker developed at Bletchley Park, England.
- The first program-controlled calculator made,the Harvard University Mark I or Automatic
Sequence-Controlled Calculator.

**1945**
- The first electronic digital computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerator, Integrator, Analyser, and
Computer) completed by a military-funded team at the University of Pennsylvania. It is 100' long, 10'
high, 3' deep and has more than 100,000 components.
- Vannevar Bush, director of USA's Office of Scientific Research and Development writes an essay in the
Atlantic called "As We May Think", envisioning future information processing uses for computers.

**1948**
- The first stored-program computer completed, the Manchester University Mark I, in England.

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Phil Gyford