Duchy of Livonia,
1561-1621 (1772)

During the Livonia Wars (1558-1582) the Livonia Confederation was dissolved. The part of Latvia west of Daugava River to Baltic Sea formed up a new region, the Duchy of Courland and Semigalia (Kurzemes un Zemgales hercogiste). The south-west part of Estonia and north-east part of Latvia was ceded to Poland in 1561. The Governor of this territory was also Gotthard Kettler, until it was declared as the Duchy of Livonia (Pardaugavas hercogiste) in 1566, according to the Treaty of Union between the landowners of Livonia and authorities of Poland. The Governor of the Duchy of Livonia became Jan Chodkiewicz (1566-1578). Soon the war between Sweden and Poland began. The theatre of war was mainly east part of Latvia and south of Estonia. This war continued from 1600-1629. As the result of this war, Sweden took Riga in 1621. The official Treaty of Peace was signed in Altmark (Prussia) in 1629. Sweden got Riga and the main part of the Duchy of Livonia. However, the eastern part of Livonia remained under the reign of Poland until 1772, when it was transferred to Russia as the result of the first dividing of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria.

King of Poland, Sigismund II August already in 1570 had an idea to begin the coinage in the Duchy of Livonia. The mint was established in Salaspils. Finally Jan Chodkiewicz began the coinage at Dole castle. Schillings were struck in 1572, and ferdings, 1/2 marks, marks in 1573. The silver content of schillings was extremely low. Thus Riga City authorities expressed their strong resistance to the first local Polish coinage. It was suggesting that Riga still had its strong influence over the neighbouring districts. The Dole coinage was mostly used for the payment to Parnu garrison, which was a part of the Duchy of Livonia. Following the example by Riga, also Parnu soon denied to accept this low silver money. Finally the coinage at Dole castle was ceased at all.

The official coat of arms of the Duchy of Livonia was the family shield of Jan Chodkiewicz - the silver griffin on red field.
Mint: Dole.

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SCHILLING

Schilling, 1572
Data: Ag 60, 0.80-0.90 g, 18.0-18.1 mm
Description: Obv: The shield of Livonia - griffin with sword, standing left.
Legend around: * DVCATVS * LIVONIE
Rev: Inscription in lines: *I*/SCHIL/LING/.72.
Legend around: *MONE*NOVA*ARGENTE
Coinage: 1572
References: Fed.628

FERDING

Ferding, 1573
Data: Ag, 2.64 g, 24.0 mm
Description: Obv: 2 shields of Poland and Lithuania, FERD above, .73. below.
Legend around: *MONE*NOVA*ARGENTEA
Rev: The shield of Livonia - griffin with sword, standing left.
Legend around: *DVCATVS * LIVONIAE
Coinage: 1573
References: Fed.631

1/2 MARK

1/2 Mark, 1573
Data: Ag, 5.40-5.48 g, 28.0-29.0 mm
Description: Obv: 2 shields of Poland and Lithuania, HALB/MARCK above, .1573. below.
Legend around: *MONE*NOVA*ARGENTEA*
Rev: The shield of Livonia - griffin with sword, standing left.
Legend around: * DVCATVS * LIVONIAE*
Coinage: 1573
References: Fed.630

MARK

Mark, 1573
Data: Ag, 9.86 g, 33.0 mm
Description: Obv: 2 shields of Poland and Lithuania, EINE/MARCK above, .1573. below.
Legend around: *MONE*NOVA*ARGENTEA**
Rev: The shield of Livonia - griffin with sword, standing left.
Legend around: *DVCATVS**LIVONIAE**
Coinage: 1573
References: Fed.629

THALER (Uniface)

Data: Ag
Description:
Coinage: 1572
References: Fed.627

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